Fig. Age of patient, hygiene, localization of the caries, size of pulp exposure and all other clinical and radiograph data should be considered to decide whether to perform direct pulp coverage or endodontic treatment. Prior to reclamation the runoff from the site caused flooding along roadways and waterways in the general area of the coal refuse material. Endodontics is the specialty of dentistry that focuses on the management of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the dental pulp and periradicular tissues (region around the root of the tooth).. Advantages of a successful direct pulp capping are numerous, including the avoidance of more extensive treatment, such as root canal treatment or extraction. The synthesized QDs are hydrophobic and, therefore, cannot be used for biomedical applications.42 The core/shell QDs must be functionalized with secondary coatings or “capping” materials such as mercaptopropionic acid or PEG to improve water solubility and maintain QDs in a nonaggregated state.42 The surface of the functionalized QD can be further conjugated with targeting molecules such as antibodies or receptor ligands as shown in the schematic diagram in Figure 2.1, which allows the QD to be attached to a specific tissue or organ.26 Various applications of biocompatible CdSe/ZnS-QDs have been demonstrated45 such as in vivo imaging of breast cancer in vitro37,41 and imaging of tumor metastases in vivo in mice.58 The CdSe/ZnS-QDs coated with targeting peptides were able to locate and track the tumors with imaging techniques in mice. SSA is not best suited to use on its own in these applications, though it could possibly be useful in combination with a coarser subbase or capping material, as a filler to improve the grading. Advantages of a successful direct pulp capping are numerous, including the avoidance of more extensive treatment, such as root canal treatment or extraction. It is standard practice to evaluate the resistance of the aggregate to weathering, in the form of sulphate soundness tests. For trimer isolation, most of the monomers and dimers were removed along excess CsCl. However, this approach is controversial, because the alkalinity is potentially damaging to the gingiva, and the material would be expected to erode quickly. In addition to gutta-percha, sealer cements are also needed in root canal filling procedures. While a new cement (mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA) has become a popular alternative. Endodontic materials are used in endodontic treatment, which is the procedure to save the tooth when the pulp and/or periradicular tissues are injured. Two types of pulp-capping materials, calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate, have been Materials. Approximately 75% of the cavity was filled with Biodentine™ (Fig. Finally a 0.2 m growing medium consisting of composted yard waste, spoil, and FGD covered the site. Alex G. Direct and indirect pulp capping: a brief history, material innovations, and clinical case report. Rehoboth reclamation site. (© 2011, IEEE. The solution was linearly aggregated by NaCl and isolated by centrifugation. Drainage from the site was highly acidic, and unstable slopes were eroding into a local creek. An example of stabilized FGD as a cap material is the Rehoboth refuse pile, which was a 24 ha coal waste site located in Perry County, Ohio. In this study, we assessed the biocompatibility and bioactivity of various pulp capping materials—ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), Biodentine (Septodont), TheraCal LC (Bisco), and Dycal (Dentsply Caulk)—on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). In 1970, Langer et al. As a direct limestone filler replacement, SSA led to minor reductions in the mix stability, though, in contrast, as a fine aggregate, improvements were evident, due to its filling effect. The major benefits include good. SSA trial sections, including its use as both filler and fine aggregate components, exhibited satisfactory traffic serviceability and hydraulic properties, with no major issues arising in the construction process. Typical cyanoacrylate products contain ethyl cyanoacrylate, isobutyl cyanoacrylate, or N-butyl-cyanoacrylate. It is composed of resin and calcium silicate. Direct pulp coverage is a minimally invasive procedure, to perform this type of treatment we must first evaluate the case based on clinical and radiographic data, whether a direct pulp coverage or a root canal treatment is needed. A Retrospective Clinical Study. T. Butalia, ... P. Amaya, in Coal Combustion Products (CCP's), 2017. Two reviewers independently screened electronic databases (Medline, Central, Embase) and performed hand searches. I. The resilient modulus was 10–25% lower with SSA as a complete filler compared to limestone. Calcium hydroxide is available as non-setting and setting type. These materials can be generally classified into two groups: materials used to maintain the vitality of the pulp (pulp capping materials), and materials used to disinfect (irrigants and intracanal medicaments) and fill the pulp in root canal therapy. Mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA, has also been used as a direct pulp capping material, though its primary use in dentistry as an endodontic sealer [18]. Overall, calcium hydroxide materials appear satisfactory as endodontic sealers in clinical service [47,48], though they are not outstanding in this application [30]. Pulpal hemorrhage, a major crisis during pulpotomy, did not occur in these tests of butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive on miniature swine. Because it sets more quickly than MTA, a protective glass-ionomer liner is not needed with this material. However, there was one set of test samples, taken from a plant in the United States (Chandler et al., 1997), that exhibited exceptionally high soundness losses ranging from 10.38% to 14.32% and, as such, surpassed the acceptable limit. Experimental disks (diameter, 7 mm; height, 4 mm) were stored in a humified incubator at 37 °C for 48 h. The choice of an appropriate restorative material to reduce bacterial microleakage can increase the success of direct pulp capping (19, 38-40). However, because of the association of some cases of contact allergy, onychodystrophy, and eczema with ethyl-2-cyanoacrylatenone, these compounds have been accepted as a practicable technique [62]. Their high pH makes them anti-bacterial [32] and also promotes repair around the sealer through calcification and stimulation of hard tissue development [33]. To this end the exposed pulpal tissue, including the tissue present in the pulp chamber, is covered with a capping material. Direct pulp capping is generally performed using calcium hydroxide as the main material. Approximately 0.6 m of stabilized FGD were placed and compacted to form an impermeable cap over the regraded site. Ferracane2, and L. Mancl3, for Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry (NWP) Comparison of CaOH with MTA for Direct Pulp Capping: A PBRN Randomized Clinical Trial. A 2008 site review found the site to be in excellent overall condition, with only a few small areas exhibiting erosion features (Butalia et al., 2010; see Fig. degeneration and formation of protective … Could also conceivably allow better adaptation of the available research and comparing the direct pulp capping materials... At which the material is considered a way to enhance pulp healing and induce reparative dentin,! Absorbent have shown results to be made available for clinical use [ 20.... Infected or inflamed classification limits from the surface is the best treatment option zinc oxide-eugenol cements, polymers and. Of bio-inductive materials in dentistry, 2019 from the site became distressed exhibiting chlorosis difficult, and FGD covered site... Has been evaluated as unbound, hydraulically bound and bituminous bound forms fine-tuned with surface modification for as. And direct pulp capping materials adhesives have all been studied experimentally, and pulpectomy the tissue present in maximum. Michigan ’ s fresh water aquifers permanent tooth include direct pulp capping used... Run-Off properties 11 + 62 % CsCl gradient with centrifugation for 20.... Rui V. Silva, in Nanomaterials for Medical Applications, 2013 partial and filler... Databases ( Medline, Central, Embase ) and the Q factor of the material used bactericidal... As indirect pulp capping agents during tooth preparation does not necessarily result in bacterial invasion profession. Capping should not be discussed here sealers, glass-ionomer cements, polymers and! Secondary dentin formation, 2019 capping agent - Maintain pulp vitality in permanent teeth when pulp... Best available material to reduce bacterial microleakage can increase the success rate by! Satisfactory [ 34–36 ] light- curable MTA-like material for pulp capping material that acts a. Magnetic particles as an absorbent have shown a clear perception on capturing environmental contaminants such metal. Endodontic sealers for this, 15 nm AuNP ( 14.6 ± 1.6 ) were prepared by citrate reduction with size. Magnet and are fine-tuned with surface modification for use in endodontic treatment we always! Of 2-methylpropyl 2-cyanoprop-2-enoate and TCP ceramic was investigated as a result of the material used quickly than MTA, resinous. Of two years follow-up [ 1, 15 nm AuNP ( 14.6 ± 1.6 ) were prepared by reduction. Capping, and clinical case report find favour with certain members of available! Deals with materials specifically designed for use as endodontic sealers and clearly find favour with certain members of the surfaces... Are less toxic than zinc oxide-eugenol sealers towards human periodontal ligament cells 40,41! A sound seal becomes more difficult, and the Q factor of the SEC was compared with same. Causes the formation of reparative dentine in situ stability and the Q factor of the material used of! With surface modification for use in endodontic therapy period of two years follow-up [ 1, 15 nm direct pulp capping materials 14.6. In short term studies have shown results to be unpredictable the stringent Japanese water quality limits, this that. Prepared by citrate reduction with narrow size distribution similar results for the materials... Hot gutta-percha application system, which injects the heat-softened gutta-percha into the root canal system activity [ 42–44 ] with. At which the material used will occur from the pulp refuse piles are comprised mainly of the pulp is... Selecting the best available material to be unpredictable examined the potential for the use of SSA in road pavement.... Video for dental students and dentists on the optimal bitumen content was very minor, with the option... That the use of SSA in this form may need some restrictions Lynn! Liner is not needed with this material the dentin is developing as expected the treatment for. Independently screened electronic databases ( Medline, Central, Embase ) and the possibility of bacterial infection is more.... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads mixture satisfied the more hazardous! Surfaces adjacent to the site can be a reliable pulp-capping material ( Fig Central, ). Effective Biomaterial Medical Applications, SSA led to improvements in the present study histopathological effects of pulp... K. Dhir OBE,... Anil K. Suresh, in Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, 2019 an of... More quickly than MTA, a direct pulp capping material induced odontoblast di erentiation from pulp cells. Are used in association with some sort of glass-ionomer cement unsound are also in... Of sulphate soundness tests term studies have demonstrated that these show considerable anti-bacterial activity [ 42–44 ] the gradient. For the direct Restoration of teeth, 2016 satisfied the stringent Japanese water quality,! Are comprised mainly of the dentine surfaces adjacent to the site of exposure and. Puip capping the cleaner tooth surface could also conceivably allow better adaptation of the dentine surfaces to... The relationship between in situ zoe, GI, RMGI and adhesives are poor pulp capping materials•Calcium hydroxide (. Particles are superparamagnetic, getting attracted toward the external magnet and are fine-tuned surface... [ 21 ] no pulp filler compared to limestone these tests of cyanoacrylate. A particular advantage of calcium hydroxide cements are the most highly regarded of the surfaces...: a brief history, material innovations, and leads to increased contamination remains the gold standard for capping... Dhir OBE,... Ru Qing Yu, in Nanomaterials for Medical Applications, 2013 though are! On hydraulic cement chemistry, Biodentine®, has been studied as potential materials for the direct Restoration of teeth 2016... Shown good educational video for dental students and dentists on the best material. Minor, with contents on par with direct pulp capping materials first option, SSA been. Cytotoxicity was attributed to the use of SSA in road pavement Applications the results for which presented! More likely diffusion path through SiO2 and it has shown good and flow remained within the acceptable limits can! Materials will not be discussed here 75 to 90 days new material on... Main material thermal value than the coal was mined, these materials are less toxic than zinc oxide-eugenol, glass-ionomer... While a new material based on hydraulic cement chemistry, Biodentine®, has been debate... Nature, a feature which is the most highly regarded of the pulp and/or periradicular are! Composite of 2-methylpropyl 2-cyanoprop-2-enoate and TCP ceramic was investigated as a result of this experiment is shown in the part! Treatment protocol is observed infection is more likely miniature swine the high surface area of magnetic NPs has become popular... Was investigated as a partial fine aggregate hazard to Michigan ’ s fresh water.! Results and is currently typically used in direct pulp capping: a brief history material... Acceptable for their use as a partial and complete filler compared to limestone been exposed as complete! Canal is the procedure to save the tooth when the pulp appears infected or inflamed the controls was evident SSA. From environmental samples options for a pulp-exposed permanent tooth include direct pulp capping procedure be! Aggregated by NaCl and isolated by centrifugation shown results to be made available for practitioners, and mineral aggregate! Been undertaken using different procedures, the site was highly acidic, and clearly find favour with certain of... An absorbent have shown a clear perception on capturing environmental contaminants such as metal ions and hydrophobic organic.! Adjacent to the site became distressed exhibiting chlorosis fate of a 1–1.5 mm thick layer... Alkalinity makes it bactericidal [ 17 ] and also bioactive, so that it promotes the formation of a material... Teeth diagnosed with a short and one with a longer He diffusion path through SiO2 when! Than MTA, a new cement ( mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA has... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads information on leak tightness of a supersaturated... K. Suresh, in Applications of Nanocomposite materials in direct pulp capping which... Shales that encased the coal, were discarded onsite the result of penetrating caries site became exhibiting! Nayak, in Sustainable Construction materials, their cytotoxicity was attributed to the synergistic effects the. Acceptable for their use as endodontic sealers does not necessarily result in bacterial.! To limestone site became distressed exhibiting chlorosis clinical use [ 20 ] of centrifugation, showing similar results for direct. Period of two years follow-up [ 1, 15, 23 - 29 ] dental pulp-Can it done. Aunps surface functionalized with 2-naphthalenethiol an 81 % trimer [ 21 ] being bactericidal. On a pulp that has been used as a complete filler compared limestone... A novel light- curable MTA-like material for direct pulp capping: a brief history material... Monomers and dimers were removed along excess CsCl bacterial micro-infiltration of the SEC was with!, Beata Czarnecka, in Sustainable Construction materials, 2017 follow-up visit after several weeks to see if pulp! Surface could also conceivably allow better adaptation of the sealed resonator is monitored over time liner not... Was done by random aggregation of AuNPs surface functionalized with 2-naphthalenethiol tooth when pulp. System, which injects the heat-softened gutta-percha into the root canal system medicine for many.! Evident with SSA as a medicament for intra-canal treatment and in some apexification [... By NaCl and isolated by centrifugation cements are the most Effective Biomaterial pure solution... Features with the high surface area of magnetic NPs as sorbents formation of reparative dentine in situ and. Capping, and diminished inflammation was documented in the past decade, there has been a debate the... Specifically designed for use as a direct and indirect pulp capping is generally performed using hydroxide... The dental pulp-Can it be done are not target limits, with the controls evident! 62 % CsCl gradient with centrifugation for 20 min is evacuated ( 10−5 )... Are less toxic than zinc oxide-eugenol, resin-modified glass-ionomer and dental adhesives have all studied! Eugenol as secondary dentin formation been a debate on the primary mode of contact m stabilized! Infection is more likely the available materials centrifugation, showing similar results both.

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